JUN 25 - 27  

Learning to Use the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for Violence Risk: Adult Version

The Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for Violence Risk (SAPROF; De Vogel et al., 2009; 2012) is an assessment tool for the evaluation of protective factors. It is a structured professional judgment checklist designed to be used in combination with risk-focused tools, such as the HCR-20V3 (Douglas et al., 2013). The addition of the structured assessment of protective factors aims to complement the risk assessment process creating a more balanced assessment for future violence risk. The dynamic factors of the SAPROF are helpful in case formulation, establishing positive treatment goals, evaluating treatment progress and stimulating well-informed risk communication. In doing so, protective factors enable a more positive approach to violence prevention.

Research results with the SAPROF in samples of violent and sexually violent offenders show good interrater reliability, concurrent validity and predictive validity for no violent recidivism after treatment as well as no violent incidents during treatment (e.g., De Vries Robbé, 2014). Multiple SAPROF ratings demonstrate significant changes during treatment on protective factors. Moreover, improvement of the protective factors during treatment shows to be predictive of reductions in violent recidivism after treatment. Most importantly, in clinical practice the SAPROF shows to provide a valuable additional dynamic approach to treatment, offering new guidelines for positive treatment interventions and new possibilities for treatment evaluation.


This workshop will focus on the value of protective factors for clinical practice. Participants will be introduced to the SAPROF and will be trained in using the SAPROF in combination with risk-focused assessment tools by means of a case study example. Advantages for risk assessment and risk management will be discussed and latest research results with the SAPROF will be presented. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Learn about protective factors for violence risk
  • Learn about the SAPROF for the assessment of protective factors
  • Practice working with the SAPROF


Dr. Michiel de Vries Robbé is a psychologist and researcher at the Department of Research of the Van der Hoeven Kliniek in Utrecht, the Netherlands. He is co-author of the SAPROF and the SAPROF - Youth Version and coordinates the international SAPROF project. He is also the co-author of the FAM (Female Additional Manual), and translator of the Dutch HCR-20 (version 3). His primary research topic is risk assessment, in particular protective factors for violence risk in (young) adults and juveniles and their value for forensic practice.

Ellen van den Broek is a psychologist and has been working in clinical forensic psychiatric treatment since 1996 at the Van der Hoeven Kliniek in Utrecht, the Netherlands. From 2003 onwards, she has been treatment supervisor of the transmural treatment team De Brug, which cares for the gradual resocialization and safe re-entry of patients in the community. She is specialized in working with patients with, primarily cluster-B, personality disorders.  She has been involved in several research projects related to risk assessment, and in particular concerning protective factors. 

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